Sometimes you just want to play with a linux distribution but you really don't want to dual boot. Dual booting has it's place, but I personally hate rebooting to switch back and forth. That's where Hyper-V comes into play.
I'm going to walk you through the basic set up if you want to install Ubuntu in a virtual machine. This should work for most of your other operating systems as long as you have a iso file.
You're going to have to turn on Hyper-V in your control panel. I don't believe this option is on by default. You can find it under the turn windows features on and off.
You also need to ensure you have the virtualization stuff turned on in your bios. There are a lot of guides out there on that. It's pretty simple stuff you shouldn't have much difficulty with it. It really depends on your bios so I won't be able to help much with that part.
So let's get started! You'll need to select the "Quick Create" option.
Then you need to select the local installation source.
From there we will need to uncheck the box for the virtual machine will run windows.
Then select the "Change Installation Source" button and select your ISO you downloaded.
If you select more option you can give your VM a name.
Select finish and it will go through a process and allow you to connect or edit settings. Select Connect.
From there it will open up the virtual machine and you can press select to start it.
When you turn it on you will need to select install from the menu. Use the arrow keys to move around.
From there on out you should be good! It's just a normal set up from here. Enter in the options you want and you should be golden!